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International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science


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Students’ Stress Levels – An Emerging Concern For Academia

Stress is the difference between expectations and acceptance. Rising stress levels among students is an alarming signal as more and more youth going through this phenomenon .One of the very basic reason for rising stress among student is predominant notion about educational qualification that it fetches more respect and gives the bright career opportunities. A culture of competitive world is killing the talent of Problem solver, lifelong learners and healthy young adult. The Fear of failing in studies is causing extreme depression and anxiety among students which has substantial negative effects on their academic, and social success. The individual worth and capabilities of student is determined by the academic success and grades, and not on the basis of individual qualities Credibility s and confidence they already do possess.
This study gives an outlook on how the education system creates the social impact causing more stress among students. The study attempted to analyze the factors determining stress amongst students. The findings suggest that “Relationship with teachers and friends” is the major determinant of students’ stress in education and “External factor such as Family conflicts and Social Influences” are the least influential factors for students’ stress levels.

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Use of Bi-Temporal Satellite Data for Feature Extraction

Feature Extraction is an important component of every Image Classification and Object Recognition System. An approach was developed in e-Cognition 9.0 software to perform image segmentation and classification for feature extraction. Classification algorithms formulated on pixel-based analysis often do not give the expected results when applied to highspatial resolution remote-sensing data. To overcome this problem, the concept of Object Based Image Analysis is developed as it gives the desired result when compared to pixel based analysis. The study area is a part of the IWMP watersheds which focuses on Gandarvakottai watershed in Pudukkottai District, Tamil Nadu. The study involves the extraction of watershed developmental activity works like check dams and farm ponds.

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Basic HEMP Protection Means for a Power Substation: A Quick Guide

Protection of modern sensitive electronics used in power systems (Digital Protective Relays - DPR, control devices and microprocessor-based communication equipment, etc.) against High Altitude Electromagnetic Pulse (HEMP), and also protection of power transformers, is a vital task for today's world. The purpose of this article is to inform civilian specialists in power engineering, in a very simple, short, but illustrative form, about the means of protection of power substations which are now available for use.

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Impacts of Climate Change on Marine Tourism in Southern Indonesian Islands of Java, Bali, Lombok and Nusa Tenggara

Marine tourism plays an important role for the tourists and the people living in the coastal regions of Indonesia. Due to climate change, marine tourism is facing an immense threat. The changing climate is having impacts on the marine resources, aquatic ecosystem and coastal weather to name a few. Secondary impacts follow soon further leading to reduced number of tourists and economic losses. In the last fifty years however, adaptation and mitigation programs has been formulated. International and regional organizations are coming together to support the government and working towards adapting to the current climatic patterns and mitigating to reverse the climatic impacts. This paper reviews the importance of marine tourism for recreation, presents updated knowledge on the impacts of climate change on activities in these environments followed by identifying adaptation and mitigation measures taken up by the government and international and regional organizations. The focus area for this study is the islands of Southern Indonesia namely Java, Bali, Lombok and Nusa Tenggara. This study provides a strong knowledge base for understanding climate change relationship with marine tourism and proposes a number of future research areas.

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Heavy Mineral Analysis and Provenance Studies of Surma Sediments in and Around Nungba, Tamenlong District, Manipur, Northeast India

A thick sedimentary succession belonging to Surma Group (Miocene) is well exposed along the road section (NH-37) in and around Nungba, Tamenglong district, Western Manipur. The Surma sediments have been analyzed for their heavy mineral suite following heavy liquid separation technique. The research result reveals the dominance of transparent varieties over the opaques. The diagnostic non-opaque variety includes Zircon, Tourmaline, Rutile, Garnet, Phlogopite, Sphene, Scapolite, Humite, Glauconite, Glaucophane, Wollastonite, Sillimanite, Staurolite, Chlorite, Chloritoid, Chondrodite and Hedenbergite. The heavy minerals suite is characterised by the presence Euhedral, Anhedral as well as Rounded to Sub-rounded varieties indicating a mixed provenance for the Surma sedimentation. Among the opaque variety iron-oxide is most abundant. The value for ZTR Index has been calculated to be 40.4 indicating a mineralogically an overall submature for Surma sediments.

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Computer Aided Process Planning Using Neutral File Step for Rotational Parts

Present investigation is on process planning using neutral file with format STEP for rotational parts with use of computer. CAE systems involved in every stage of product life cycle mainly uses the product data produced by the CAD systems and integrated manufacturing data produced by CAPP and CAM systems. As the degree of automation and CAD/CAM integration increases, the inclusion of high level information with the product data and its seamless flow in CAD-CAM-CNC chain becomes a necessity. The objective of this work is to develop a Computer Aided Process Planning system for rotational parts using ISO 10303 standard STEP AP224 data exchange file, enabling the inclusion of high level information about the product besides geometry. The developed system aims to incorporate the small and medium sized manufacturing enterprises into the e-manufacturing chain by adopting the NC-code based CNC machine tools without any modification of the controllers.

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The Nexus between Fiscal Decentralization and Economic Growth: Evidence from Sub-National Governments in India

Panel Vector Auto Regression is used to examine the impact of financial decentralization on economic growth in seventeen sub-national governments (SNGs) in India taking data from 2000-01 to 2014-15. We find the positive impact of decentralization on the economic growth of SNGs with feedback effect.

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Determining the Relationship between E Flute Corrugated Board Properties and its Box Compression Strength

Box Compression strength or Compression strength can be defined as the measure of the maximum compressive force per unit width that a paper board box can withstand during a compression test till it reaches the buckling stage. It is expressed in kN/m. It is one of the most important property of the paper board package and it helps in determining the staking limitations as well as the overall strength of the package. In this paper, we have tried to determine the nature of the relationship of some of the internal properties of the package (bursting factor, stiffness, moisture content, Thickness of the material and the edge compression test value) with its compression strength (BCT) only for E type fluted paperboard.

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p-AMINO BENZOIC ACID and p-HYDROXY BENZOIC ACID as JACKBEAN UREASE INHIBITORS

- Inhibition of jackbean urease catalysed hydrolysis of urea by p-amino benzoic acid and p-hydroxy benzoic acid has been studied on the basis of kineic measurement of urea hydrolysis. The concentration of urea was varied in the range of 1.00 10-2 to2.65 10-2 and that of inhibitor was maintained at 2.5 10-3. The Michaelis constant,Km, apperent Michealis constant,Kmapp and dissociation constant of enzyme-inhibitor complex,Ki were determined at pH6.80 and temperature 37.0 0c. Both the inhibitor shows competitive type of inhibition..

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Microwave Assisted Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of 1, 2, 4-Triazolo [1, 5-A] Pyrimidines

A microwave assisted synthesis of three new series of of 1, 2, 4-triazolo [1, 5-a] pyrimidines (PK-101 to PK-110) has been synthesized by the mixture of 5-(methylthio)-2H-1,2,4-triazol-3- amine (0.01 mol), 4,4,4-trifluoro-1-(4-methoxyphenyl)butane-1,3- dione (0.01 mol) and an appropriate aromatic aldehyde (0.01 mol) in ethanol (5 mL) was irradiated under microwave conditions at 120 °C for 10-15 min. The structures of all the newly synthesized compounds are elucidated by FT-IR, mass spectra, 1H NMR and elemental analysis. The newly synthesized compounds are subjected to various biological activities viz., antimicrobial, antimycobacterial, anticancer and antiviral.

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Structural and Optical Characterization of Nanocrystalline SnSe Thin Film

Structural and optical properties of nanocrystalline SnSe thin film confer in this paper. For that purpose Nanocrystalline thin film of SnSe was deposited at room temperature having thickness 1μm, 2μm, 3μm and 4μm. Structural and optical properties studied by XRD, TEM, AFM, and Uv-Vis- Nir spectroscopy methods of all thin films. From these studied we found there is a strong effect of thickness on structural and optical properties of Nanocrystalline SnSe thin film.

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Enhancing Land Acquisition for Individual Housing Development in Nigeria: A Case Study of Benin Metropolis Edo State, Nigeria

Land acquisition constitutes a major problem in home ownership or housing development. This paper investigates the constraints and challenges of acquiring land in Benin Metropolis; with the aim of enhancing land acquisition process. It further examines the Land Use Act as it affects individual housing development especially for the low and medium income earners in Benin Metropolis. Primary and secondary data were used. The primary data was obtained from field surveys over a ten (10) years period and covering ten (10) communities within Benin Metropolis; while the secondary data were obtained from government institutions and print media. Survey research design was employed in carrying out the study. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistical methods. The findings revealed that firstly, there has been a significant increase in price of urban land within Benin Metropolis. Secondly, that land tenure and acquisition constituted a major problem in home ownership and development in Benin Metropolis. Thirdly, the increase in the price of land in one community affects the prices of land in neighbouring communities. Fourthly, the activities of land speculators (or traders) also contributed to increase in prices of land. The paper recommends that both federal and state government should focus on providing enabling environment such as embarking on site and services schemes; and also stimulate an effective integrated rural development programmes to encourage development of rural areas. The integrated rural development will consequently serve as growth poles for enhanced rural development.

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Estimating Beta Inverse Weibull Distribution by the Method of Quantile Estimates

The Beta Inverse Weibull distribution is one of the widely applied distribution. In reliability and biological studies, we can model failure rates by this distribution. In this paper, we extend the study of the Beta Inverse Weibull distribution (BIW). The unimodal BIW with three parameters are estimated by the Method of Quantile Estimates (MQE) and then compared with parameters estimated by the Maximum Likelihood Estimates (MLE). To estimate the model parameters, Newton-Raphson method is applied for MLE and Nelder-Mead Simplex method is applied for MQE and the table of simulation results is shown. Finally, practical use of the model is demonstrated by dint of an application to real data. For the real data computation, standard deviations of the estimated parameters are calculated by random permutation method.

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EMP and Its Impact on Electrical Power System: Standards and Reports

The purpose of the given publication is to give to civil specialists the information on accessible standards and reports in the field of EMP/HEMP which they can use at an estimation of danger of EMP for the power electrical and electronic equipment and development of means of protection.

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A Note on Adaptive Box-Cox Transformation Parameter in Linear Regression

The Box-Cox transformation is a well known family of power transformations that brings a set of data into agreement with the normality assumption of the residuals and hence the response variable of a postulated model in regression analysis. In this paper we use six different data sets to implement adaptive maximum likelihood Box-Cox transformation parameter estimation in regression analysis. In addition, we perform random permutation and Monte-Carlo simulation to investigate the performances of the adaptive method..

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2-Tier Trust Based Model Forintrusion Detection System in Mobile Adhoc Network

Mobile Adhoc Networks (MANET) is a set of wireless cellular nodes which creates transient network with none infrastructure. The channel is wi-fi, topology is dynamic so, there may be no clear line of defense. due to those motives, MANET constantly stays under extra danger to attacks. The Black hole assault is considered one of such safety issue in MANET. In a Black hole assault a malicious node replies with having a shortest path to destination and drops the send packet by way of supply node in preference to forwarding it to the vacation spot node. on this paper, we propose 2-tier trust based model to preventattacks by using calculating believe cost for source to destination in between hops as well as consider for course and store facts for routing motive. by using depended on routing protocol named 2-tier NTPTSAODV (Node accept as true with course accept as true with comfy AODV) affords at ease network transmission direction. The NTPTSAODV protocol has been implemented and simulated on NS-2. The overall performance of NTPTSAODV has been additionally analyzed with appreciate to Blackhole attack and examine with normal AODV, BAODV and NTPTSAODV..

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Water Quality Assessment of a Tank Cascade System using CCME Water Quality Index

Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME)has developed a water quality index which certainly be used with fairly consistent in different geographical locations and different water quality parameters. This study was conducted to assess the water quality of Malwathu Oya cascade-I in tropical Sri Lanka for drinking, fish & aquatic life, irrigation & agriculture and recreational use by applying CCME Water Quality Index (WQI). Water samples from ten tanks were collected once a month representing wet and dryperiods during 2013/14 and analyzed for seven physicochemical parameters (electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen level, turbidity, pH, nitrate nitrogen, phosphate and sodium) using standard instruments and procedures. Physicochemical parameters were compared with the drinking water quality guidelines17 and proposed ambient water quality standards for inland waters of Sri Lanka. Average values of CCME WQI showed that water quality is poor for drinking, fish & aquatic life and irrigation & agriculture in tanks of Malwathu Oya cascade- I while, marginal for recreational use. However, it showed high spatial and temporal variation of water quality for all kind of water uses. CCME WQI can be successfully used to draw meaningful and easily understandableconclusions about cascade systems from large data matrix on water quality.

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Synthesis and Characterization of Binuclear Metal Complexes of Cu(II), Ni(II) and Co(II) with 3,6-Dimethyl-2,7-Dioxo-4,5-Diazaocta-3,5-Diene-2,7-Dihydrazone (BAAD)

The synthesis and characterization of a series of homo binuclear metal complexes of Cu(II), Ni(II) and Co(II) with the titled ligand 3,6-Dimethyl-2,7-Dioxo-4,5-diazaocta-3,5-Diene-2,7-Dihydrazone(BAAD) have been reported. The complexes were synthesized by treating an ethanolic solution of the ligand with equimolar amount of appropriate metal salts in ethanol by a direct route. The ligand and its metal complexes have been characterized on the basis of analytical and spectral data, thermal analysis, magnetic and conductivity measurements. Based on the results, tentative structures of the complexes have been proposed. The ligand as well as the metal complexes exhibited antimicrobial activities against the pathogenic fungus T. viridae, Aspergillus flavus, and Aspergillus niger. The fungicidal activities of the complexes have been compared with a standard fungicide Fluconazole..

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Innovative Spectrophotometric Methods for the Determination of Anacardic Acid

Productivity of smallholder agriculture lingers at subsistence level, primarily due to the unreliable supply and unaffordable prices of farm inputs, and poor rural marketing infrastructure. Cooperatives are indispensable institutions for addressing such a structural problem. In Ethiopia, inefficiencies in the coffee markets primarily hurts the income of coffee farmers and discourages their production and marketing of coffee, and secondly it also significantly decreases the country’s foreign exchange that should have been obtained from coffee production and trading. This suggests that it is very crucial to study and monitor the performance of coffee markets in all coffee producing areas of the country and improve their efficiency. The study was initiated with the objectives of investigate major marketing problems of coffee cooperatives of farmers, to assess the major constrains that exist in the channel members and to recommend the better placement of coffee product as well as the positioning of Kurtu Cooperative Society. The research design is descriptive in nature and the data for this study were collected both from primary and secondary sources. Primary data was collected using two types of questionnaire, one for the coffee producers (farmers) who are members of the cooperatives and the other for wholesalers and retailers. According to the results of the study, sample cooperatives were characterized by lack of marketing facilities, shortage of land, poor road infrastructural problems ,prevalence of diseases that influence farmer’s market performancesand alsotraders business were lack of road, lack of transportation, and also the constraints indicated by wholesalers and retailers with respect to coffee marketing include delay in unloading coffee at ECX which creates additional cost and the most important marketing problems reported by the traders include too much competition with unlicensed traders and the overall storage of coffee supply.

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Innovative Spectrophotometric Methods for the Determination of Anacardic Acid

Anacardic acid, a phenolic compound is found in cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) a by-product of cashew industry. It holds considerable promise because of its large availability in tropical areas, low cost, biodegradability and structural characteristics. A study was made of the application of diazotization-coupling spectrophotometric technique for the determination of anacardic acid, using sulfanilamide (SAA), sulfadoxine (SDX) and sulfamethoxazole (SMX) the widely used sulfa drugs as coupling agents. The methods are based on the interaction of diazotized drugs with anacardic acid in alkaline medium to produce a orange red color product having maximum absorption at 480 nm. The color developed was stable for 4 h at 27oC. Beer’s law was obeyed in the concentration range 1.6-12.8 µgml-1 for SAA and 1.0-14.4 µgml-1 for SDX and SMX at the wavelength of maximum absorption at 480 nm. The method was also successfully tried for the determination of anacardic acid in presence of various anions and cations, which did not interfere in the proposed methods..

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Late Eocene Unstable Basin Margin Kopili Sedimentation and Its Reservoir Characteristics in Upper Assam Petroliferous Basin

The Kopili Formation forms the topmost part of the Eocene Sequence of Upper Assam Shelf. This formation is characterized by alternating bands of argillaceous and arenaceous sediments. The sandstone are mainly composed of quartz, lithic fragments with meager amount of feldspar and cemented by calcareous and ferruginous cements. The sandstone’s of this formation generally contain higher amount of matrix and rock-fragment and as such are classified as Sublithand Lithic Arenite to Lithic Greywacke. The heavy minerals recorded are zircon, tourmaline, rutile, garnet, hornblende, enstatite, epidote, andalusite, kyanite, muscovite, tremolite and opaque. Sillimanite, apatite, augite, chlorite, hypersthene, fluorite, monazite, titanite and staurolite are also recorded in small amount. The IR and XRD study confirms the presence of kaolinite, montmorillonite, illite and chlorite. Various provenance-interpreting parameters reveal that the sediments were derived from mixed provenance and recycled orogen. Dominance of kaolinite and montmorillonite towards the northeastern side and sparse occurrence of the montmorillonite along with illite towards the southwestern part of the study area indicate the southward marine regression took place during Kopili time. The Electro-log patterns of different oil wells also support the view of a deltaic environment in the southwestern part, which also extended towards the northeastern part of the study area with marine invasions in the form of oscillating sea. From the study of the diagenetic changes of the sandstone of the Kopili Formation it can be concluded that it losses its porosity due to extensive quartz replacement, deformation and dissolution of rock-fragments..=

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